The presence of different chemicals during crystallisation has provided Tourmaline with an array of spectacular colours. When a deep, vivid green, they are often rich in chromium and are sometimes named Chrome Tourmaline.
Tourmaline was not identified as a gem variety in its own right until 1703. With the unique ability to attract particles, known as pyroelectricity, when heated or rubbed, Tourmalines create an electrical charge and for this reason non gem-quality specimens are used in electrical devices.
Tourmalines are found in various parts of the world, California has been in operation since 1822 however, most on the market today are from Brazil.