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Minerals

Most gems  are  minerals,  with  noticeable  exceptions being Pearls, Jet and Amber, which  are all organically created.

Minerals  are  a  naturally  occurring  solid  substance; they are formed through geological  events  and  each  mineral  has  a  characteristic  chemical   composition,   specific   physical  properties and a well-defined atomic structure.  They  are  created  from  a  variety  of  different  natural events; some minerals crystallise from  molten magma or lava flowing from volcanoes,  while  others  form  in  gases  or  crystallise  in  hydrous solutions. Some minerals re-crystallise  under immense pressure and high temperatures  as they are pushed lower into the Earth’s crust  through geological movements. 

Minerals  can  be  identified,  measured  and  assessed in a variety of ways: from their relative  density  to  their  refractive  index,  from  their  crystal  structure  to  their  type  of  lustre.  The  hardness of a mineral is measured by the Mohs  scale, with talc being the softest of all minerals  and recording 1 on the scale and Diamond being the hardest measuring 10.

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