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Most gems are minerals, with noticeable exceptions being Pearls, Jet and Amber, which are all organically created.
Minerals are a naturally occurring solid substance; they are formed through geological events and each mineral has a characteristic chemical composition, specific physical properties and a well-defined atomic structure. They are created from a variety of different natural events; some minerals crystallise from molten magma or lava flowing from volcanoes, while others form in gases or crystallise in hydrous solutions. Some minerals re-crystallise under immense pressure and high temperatures as they are pushed lower into the Earth’s crust through geological movements.
Minerals can be identified, measured and assessed in a variety of ways: from their relative density to their refractive index, from their crystal structure to their type of lustre. The hardness of a mineral is measured by the Mohs scale, with talc being the softest of all minerals and recording 1 on the scale and Diamond being the hardest measuring 10.
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